Morse Code

Morse code is a method of transmitting textual information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
The International Morse Code encodes the Roman alphabet, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals. Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages.
Morse code is composed of five elements:
a. a dot or 'dit' - one unit long
b. a dash or 'dah' - three units long
c. the space or gap between the elements of one character - one unit long
d. the space or gap between the letters of a word - three units long
e. the space or gap between words - 7 units long.
Morse code speed is specified in words per minute (WPM) and associated with an "element time" equal to 1.2 seconds divided by the speed in WPM.
Letter Morse Letter Morse Figure Morse Abbreviated Figure Morse
A · — N — · 0 — — — — — T
B — · · · O — — — 1 · — — — — A · —
C — · — · P · — — · 2 · · — — — U · · —
D — · · Q — — · — 3 · · · — —    
E · R · — · 4 · · · · —    
F · · — · S · · · 5 · · · · · E ·
G — — · T 6 — · · · ·    
H · · · · U · · — 7 — — · · ·    
I · · V · · · — 8 — — — · · D — · ·
J · — — — W · — — 9 — — — — · N — ·
K — · — X — · · —        
L · — · · Y — · — —        
M — — Z — — · ·        

 

Punctuation marks Morse Non-English characters Morse Other Morse
Period { }. · — · — · — à/å · — — · — starting sign {KA} or {CT} — · — · —
Comma {,} — — · · — — ä/æ · — · — invitation for one station {KN} — · — — ·
Question mark {?} · · — — · · ç — · — · · separation {BT} — · · · —
dash/minus {-} — · · · · — ch — — — — closing sign{AR} ¹ · — · — ·
slash {/} — · · — · é · · — · · ending the contact {SK} ² · · · — · —
colon {:} — — — · · · è · — · · — wait {AS} · — · · ·
semicolon {;} — · — · — · ñ — — · — — understood {VE} · · · — ·
parenthisis open {(} — · — — · ö/ø — — — · mistake ³ · · · · · · · ·
parenthisis close {)} — · — — · — ü · · — —    
apostrophe{ }' · — — — — ·        
quotation {"} · — · · — ·        
exclamation {!} — · — · — —        
equal {=} — · · · —        
ampersand {&} · — · · ·        
at {@} · — — · — ·        

 

¹ by computersoftware sometimes represented as + {plus sign}
² by computersoftware sometimes respresented as @ {at sign}
³ a minimum of 7 dots is required